There is plenty of basic information on dietary therapy throughout the Internet. If you are interested in the latest medical findings you should consult the global database PUBMED of the medical publications. Below are examples of IBS-related studies:
A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet allows most irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients to manage their gastrointestinal symptoms by avoiding FODMAP-containing foods, such as onions, pulses, and products made from wheat or rye. The downside of a low FODMAP diet is the reduced intake of dietary fiber. Applying sourdoughs&mdash;with specific FODMAP-targeting metabolic properties&mdash;to wholegrain bread making can help to remarkably reduce the content of FODMAPs in bread without affecting the content of the slowly fermented and well-tolerated dietary fiber. In this review, we outline the metabolism of FODMAPs in conventional sourdoughs and outline concepts related to fructan and mannitol metabolism that allow development of low FODMAP sourdough bread. We also summarize clinical studies where low FODMAP but high fiber, rye sourdough bread was tested for its effects on gut fermentation and gastrointestinal symptoms with very promising results. The sourdough bread-making process offers a means to develop natural and fiber-rich low FODMAP bakery products for IBS patients and thereby help them to increase their dietary fiber intake.
KEYWORDS: FODMAP, fructan, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), lactobacilli, mannitol, non-celiac wheat intolerance, sourdough
Functional bowel disorders (FBDs) are a spectrum of disorders characterized by combinations of symptoms attributable to the lower gastrointestinal tract. Most current first-line therapies for IBS and other FBDs target the predominant symptom and mainly affect one symptom in the symptom complex. Additional broadly effective treatment alternatives targeting the entire symptom complex are needed. New drugs for FBDs (such as lubiprostone, linaclotide, plecanatide, prucalopride, eluxadoline and rifaximin) target key mechanisms in the pathophysiology of these disorders and improve both the abnormal bowel habit and other key symptoms, such as abdominal pain and bloating. The current development of new treatment alternatives is focusing on different aspects of the complex pathophysiology of IBS and other FBDs: gut microenvironment (via diet and modulation of gut microbiota), enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, gastrointestinal secretion, motility and sensation, gut-brain interactions, gut barrier function and the immune system within the gastrointestinal tract. Studies also suggest that personalized treatment of IBS and other FBDs is possible using various diagnostic markers.
Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is an essential pathway for energy production, especially during prolonged fasting and sub-maximal exercise. Long-chain fatty acids are the most abundant fatty acids in the human diet and in body stores, and more than 15 enzymes are involved in long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Pathogenic mutations in genes encoding these enzymes result in a long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder in which the energy homeostasis is compromised and long-chain acylcarnitines accumulate. Symptoms arise or exacerbate during catabolic situations, such as fasting, illness and (endurance) exercise. The clinical spectrum is very heterogeneous, ranging from hypoketotic hypoglycemia, liver dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy and early demise. With the introduction of several of the long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (lcFAOD) in newborn screening panels, also asymptomatic individuals with a lcFAOD are identified. However, despite early diagnosis and dietary therapy, a significant number of patients still develop symptoms emphasizing the need for individualized treatment strategies. This review aims to function as a comprehensive reference for clinical and laboratory findings for clinicians who are confronted with pediatric and adult patients with a possible diagnosis of a lcFAOD.
KEYWORDS: Carnitine transport, Inborn errors of metabolism, Mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, ß-oxidation
Dietary guidelines for egg consumption for general population differ among public health agencies. Our aim was to investigate the association between egg intake and both all-cause and specific-cause of mortality in a Mediterranean population. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort included 40,621 men and women aged 29-69 years old in the nineties from 5 Spanish regions. After a mean of 18 years of follow-up, 3,561 deaths were recorded, of which 1,694 were from cancer, 761 from CVD, and 870 from other causes. Data on egg consumption was collected using a validated diet history at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounders, were used in the analyses. The mean (standard deviation) egg consumption was 22.0 g/day and 30.9 g/day in women and men, respectively. No association was observed between egg consumption and all-cause mortality for the highest vs the lowest quartile. Likewise, no association was observed with cancer and cardiovascular diseases mortality. However, an inverse association was found between egg consumption and deaths for other causes, particularly for deaths from the nervous system. No interaction was detected with the adherence to Mediterranean diet. This study shows no association between moderate egg consumption, up to 1 egg per day, and main causes of mortality in a large free-living Mediterranean population.
KEYWORDS: Cohort, EPIC-Spain, Egg, Intake, Mortality
Ultra-processed foods (UPF) consumption has increased over the last decades and is raising concerns about potential adverse health effects. Our objective was to assess the association between UPF consumption and four functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs): irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation (FC), functional diarrhea (FDh), and functional dyspepsia (FDy), in a large sample of French adults. We analyzed dietary data of 33,343 participants from the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort, who completed at least three 24 h food records, prior to a Rome III self-administered questionnaire. Proportion (in weight) of UPF in the diet (UPFp) was computed for each subject. The association between UPFp quartiles and FGIDs was estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Participants included in the analysis were mainly women, and the mean age was 50.4 years. UPF accounted for 16.0% of food consumed in weight, corresponding to 33.0% of total energy intake. UPF consumption was associated with younger age, living alone, lower incomes, higher BMI, and lower physical activity level. A total of 3516 participants reported IBS, 1785 FC, 1303 FDy, and 396 FDh. After adjusting for confounding factors, an increase in UPFp was associated with a higher risk of IBS. This study suggests an association between UPF and IBS. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm those results and understand the relative impact of the nutritional composition and specific characteristics of UPF in this relationship.
Patients with bile acid diarrhea (BAD) are identified based on increased levels of BAs in fecal samples collected over a 48-hr period while on a 100-gram fat diet, retention of 75 Se-labeled homocholic acid taurine, or serum levels of C4 or FGF19. BAD increases fecal weight and colonic transit. We investigated whether results of tests for BAD associate with increased fecal weight and more rapid colonic transit over a 24- or 48-hr period in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D). We also estimated the prevalence of increased 48-hr fecal BAs in patients with chronic diarrhea. We performed a retrospective study of 64 patients with IBS-D, 30 patients with IBS-constipation, 30 healthy volunteers (controls). We collected data on fecal weights, colonic transit over a 24-hr period (measured by scintigraphy), and percentages of different BAs in stool samples. Colonic transit was measured as the geometric center (weighted average) of colonic counts on a scale of 1 to 5. We performed area under the curve (AUC) analyses to assess the association between result of serum and stool tests and high fecal weight or rapid colonic transit. We estimated the prevalence of increased 48-hr fecal BAs among 938 patients with chronic diarrhea. Total fecal 48-hr BA alone, or in combination with percentage of primary fecal BAs, identified patients with increased fecal weight with an AUROC of 0.86. Percentage of primary fecal BA alone identified patients with increased fecal weight with an AUROC of 0.73. Total fecal 48-hr BA alone identified patients with increased colonic transit with an AUROC of 0.65 and percentage of primary fecal BA alone identified patients with increased colonic transit with an AUROC of 0.69; combined data on these features identified patients with increased colonic transit with an AUROC of 0.70. Serum level of C4 identified patients with increased colonic transit with an AUROC of 0.60. Primary BAs >10% identified patients with increased fecal weight and rapid colonic transit. Among the patients with chronic diarrhea, 45.6% had fecal primary BAs >10% and 27% had increased total fecal BAs. In a retrospective analysis of patients with IBS-D, we found percentage of primary BAs in fecal samples to provide an alternative to total fecal BAs in identification of patients with BAD or chronic diarrhea.
KEYWORDS: CDCA, chenodeoxycholic, cholic acid, diagnostic
A variety of fungi, plants, and their different tissues are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve health, and some of them are recommended for dietary therapy. Many of these plants and fungi contain antifungal proteins and peptides which suppress spore germination and hyphal growth in phytopathogenic fungi. The aim of this article is to review antifungal proteins produced by medicinal plants and fungi used in Chinese medicine which also possess anticancer and human immunodeficiency virus-1 enzyme inhibitory activities.
KEYWORDS: anti-HIV-1 enzymes, anticancer, antifungal proteins, medicinal fungi, medicinal plants.
Dietary therapy is increasingly used to manage gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aim to gauge United States gastroenterologists' perceptions of dietary therapies for IBS. We distributed a 22-question survey to members of the American College of Gastroenterology. The survey was developed by gastroenterologists and survey methodologists. We collected information pertaining to demographics, providers' interpretation of their patients' views on dietary therapy, and gastroenterologists' perceptions on dietary therapy, and nutritional counseling in IBS. One thousand five hundred and sixty-two surveys were collected. Nearly 60% of participants reported that patients commonly associate food with GI symptoms. IBS patients most commonly use a trial and error approach followed by a lactose-free and gluten-free diet, and rarely use a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) diet on their own. Over half of providers recommend diet therapy to ＞ 75% of IBS patients and most commonly recommend a low FODMAP diet. Only 21% of gastroenterologists commonly refer IBS patients to registered dietitians, and only 30% use GI dietitians. Female providers were more likely than males to recommend dietary changes as the primary mode of therapy. Our national survey identified enthusiasm for diet treatment of IBS. While patients infrequently tried a low FODMAP diet on their own, GI providers commonly recommended this diet. Only a minority of GI providers refer their IBS patients to a registered dietitian for nutrition counseling and few refer patients to dietitians with specialized GI training. Female providers were more enthusiastic about diet therapies than males.
KEYWORDS: Diet therapy, Dietitian, Irritable bowel syndrome
Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed nonalcoholic beverages worldwide, but methodological differences in assessing intake often hamper comparisons across populations. We aimed to (i) describe coffee and tea intakes and (ii) assess their contribution to intakes of selected nutrients in adults across 10 European countries. Between 1995 and 2000, a standardized 24-h dietary recall was conducted among 36,018 men and women from 27 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study centres. Adjusted arithmetic means of intakes were estimated in grams (=volume) per day by sex and centre. Means of intake across centres were compared by sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. In women, the mean daily intake of coffee ranged from 94 g/day in Greece to 781 g/day in Aarhus (Denmark), and tea from 14 g/day in Navarra (Spain) to 788 g/day in the UK general population. Similar geographical patterns for mean daily intakes of both coffee and tea were observed in men. Current smokers as compared with those who reported never smoking tended to drink on average up to 500 g/day more coffee and tea combined, but with substantial variation across centres. Other individuals' characteristics such as educational attainment or age were less predictive. In all centres, coffee and tea contributed to less than 10% of the energy intake. The greatest contribution to total sugar intakes was observed in Southern European centres. Coffee and tea intake and their contribution to energy and sugar intake differed greatly among European adults. Variation in consumption was mostly driven by geographical region.
KEYWORDS: 24-h dietary recall, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, coffee, tea
A growing body of evidence has pointed out the effectiveness of a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, there are no local studies to estimate the effects of this strategy on the symptoms and the health-related quality of life in these patients in Colombia or Latin America. To determine the effect of a diet low in FODMAP on the quality of life and the severity of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in Colombia. We collected clinical and demographic information of all patients at the time of inclusion. Immediately afterwards, a trained interviewer applied the IBS-QoL survey to estimate the quality of life of patients. Then, we evaluated the intensity of the symptoms using an analogue visual scale, before and after the diet low in FODMAP. We included 50 subjects in the final analysis. We observed an increase in all the IBS-QoL scales and a significant reduction in all symptoms. Sex, age, body mass index, socioeconomic status and the health care provider were not associated with the improvement in the health-related quality of life. A low diet in FODMAP reduced symptoms and improved quality of life in Colombian patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Controlled studies taking into account other factors linked to the severity of irritable bowel syndrome are required.
KEYWORDS: diet, disaccharides, irritable bowel syndrome, monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, quality of life
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diet on serum lipids and to assess the effectiveness of long-term dietary therapy for hypertriglyceridemia. Seventy-nine patients with hypertriglyceridemia were enrolled and underwent dietary counseling for 12 months based on the following three recommendations: reduce carbohydrate intake, increase n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, and limit alcohol drinking. We examined the effect of dietary therapy for 6 months on serum triglyceride (TG) levels and also compared the effectiveness of dietary and combined drug therapies on preventing arteriosclerotic disease from 7 to 12 months. We observed that serum TG levels of the patients receiving dietary counseling were decreased compared with baseline at 6 months. Body weight and serum TG levels were decreased, and serum high-density lipoprotein levels were increased in the dietary therapy alone group, whereas BW, body mass index, and abdominal circumference were decreased in the combined drug treatment group compared with baselines at 6 and 12 months. Furthermore, the dietary therapy alone group demonstrated reductions in intake of total energy, carbohydrate, and saturated fatty acids, as well as n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with baselines, but only n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was decreased in the combined drug treatment group. This study demonstrated a decrease in serum TG level after 12 months of dietary therapy similar to drug therapy, which suggests that it is an effective treatment for hypertriglyceridemia, and heightened awareness should be made to encourage its use.The clinical trial registration number: UMIN000028860.
KEYWORDS: Dietary therapy, Guidelines, Hypertriglyceridemia, Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)
For some people with medically refractory epilepsy adjunct treatment with neurostimulation and ketogenic diet can be an option. Vagal nerve stimulation, VNS, consists of chronic intermittent electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve. VNS is effective and well tolerated in adolescents and adults. There is insufficient evidence on the efficacy of deep brain stimulation, DBS, and brain-responsive neurostimulation, RNS. Ketogenic diet is an established treatment in epilepsy with an increased number of indications, especially in neurometabolic diseases, where dietary therapy can completely eliminate epilepsy and improve cognitive and motor development. Ketogenic diet is a calculated diet consisting of a high amount of fat, the daily need of protein and a minimum of carbohydrates. The fat is converted to ketone bodies and transported across the blood-brain barrier to be used as an alternative energy source in the brain. Strictly calculated menus, regular monitoring and support from a team of dietician, nurse and physician are required.
The relation between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and memory dysfunction is well established, yet imprecise. Here, we investigate whether mild TBI causes a specific deficit in spatial episodic memory. Fifty-eight mice were run in a spatial recognition task. To determine which phase of memory might be affected in our task, we assessed rodent performance at three different delay times. We found that sham and TBI mice performed equally well at 3 minutes, but TBI mice had significantly impaired spatial recognition memory after a delay time of one hour. Neither sham nor injured mice remembered the test object locations after a 24 hr delay. In addition, the TBI specific impairment was accompanied by a decrease in exploratory behavior during the first three minutes of the initial exposure to the test objects. These memory and exploratory behavioral deficits were linked as branched chain amino acid (BCAA) dietary therapy restored both memory performance and normal exploratory behavior. Our findings support the use of BCAA therapy as a potential treatment for mild TBI and suggest that poor memory performance after TBI is associated with a deficit in the exploratory behavior that is likely to underlie the encoding needed for memory formation.
KEYWORDS: LEARNING AND MEMORY, THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CNS INJURY, TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
Despite the rising of the Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs)' incidence in the last years, the etio-pathogenesis of FGIDs remains unclear. The diet seems to play an important role in these disorders. Indeed, at least two thirds of adult patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and of children with FGIDs perceive their GI symptoms to be food-related. In particular, in the last years, more interest has been focused in the low Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyol (FODMAPs) diet. To provide a systematic review on the efficacy of a low FODMAPs diet in reducing symptoms associated with functional abdominal pain disorders. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (via Pubmed), and EMBASE databases from inception to June 2017 were searched. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, reporting the efficacy of the FODMAPs diet intervention in FGIDs patients. Nineteen studies were eligible. A FODMAPs-restricted diet is beneficial in 12/13 intervention trials. The low FODMAPs diet improves overall GI symptoms, especially abdominal pain and bloating. In children, only one study reported positive results of a low FODMAPs diet. No effect was found for the lactose free diet whilst fructose-restricted diet was effective in 3/4 studies. The duration of the intervention was very different among the studies, ranging from 2 days to 16 months, and from 3 and 9 weeks for the RCTs. The majority of the trials presented differences in symptoms scoring scales, diet, food diaries, and food frequencies questionnaire. The FODMAPs-restricted diet may be an effective dietary intervention for reducing IBS symptoms in adults. In children, there are promising data, although only one randomized double-blind study exists and further data are needed to better clarify the role of FODMAPs and fructose-restricted diet in IBS. The current evidence does not support the use of a lactose-restricted diet in children with FGIDs.
KEYWORDS: Abdominal pain, Diet, FGIDs, FODMAPs, IBS, Paediatric
Irritable bowel syndrome is a common condition that negatively impacts quality of life and results in significant health care expenditures. The vast majority of IBS patients associate their symptoms with eating. Numerous randomized, controlled trials suggest that restriction of dietary FODMAPs improves overall symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating and quality of life in more than half of IBS sufferers. There is emerging data which suggests that other diets (gluten free, guided elimination diets) might also be of benefit to IBS patients. Areas covered: Comprehensive literature review on dietary therapies available for IBS to date and exploration into individualized dietary therapy development based on diagnostic testing. Expert commentary: FODMAP elimination identifies IBS patients who are sensitive to FODMAPs. Responders should undergo a structured reintroduction of foods containing FODMAPs to determine a patient's sensitivities. This information can then be used to create a personalized, less restrictive low FODMAP diet. Future research should focus on the identification of other effective diet therapies focusing on supplementation of functional foods in addition to elimination and the development of biomarker-based diet treatment plans which identify the right treatment for the right patient.
KEYWORDS: Dietary therapies, ESP, IBS, gluten free diet, low FODMAP
To evaluate the usefulness of a low FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyols) diet on patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), non-active inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD). Dietetic interventional prospective study. IBS, IBD, and CD subjects were evaluated to check if they fulfilled the Rome III criteria. Each subject was educated to follow a low FODMAP diet after being evaluated by filling out questionnaires that assessed the quality of life (QoL) and symptoms experienced, and was reevaluated after 1 and 3 months. One hundred twenty-seven subjects were enrolled: 56 with IBS, 30 with IBD, and 41 with CD. IBS-SSS showed that abdominal symptoms improved after 1 and 3 months of diet in all subjects, with significant difference among the 3 groups at T0, but no difference at T3. By analyzing the SF-36 questionnaire, we did not observe any difference between the 3 groups, in terms of response to diet (p = ns), we observed a clinical improvement from T0 to T3 for most of the questionnaire's domains. A low FODMAP diet could be a valid option to counter -abdominal symptoms in patients with IBS, non-active IBD, or CD on a GFD, and thus, improve their QoL and social -relations.
KEYWORDS: Celiac disease, Diet, Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, Inflammatory bowel diseases, Irritable bowel syndrome
Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 5991 incident CRC cases, of which 3897 were in the colon and 2094 were in the rectum. Polyphenol intake was estimated using validated centre/country specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, a doubling in total dietary polyphenol intake was not associated with CRC risk in women or in men, respectively. Phenolic acid intake, highly correlated with coffee consumption, was inversely associated with colon cancer in men and positively associated with rectal cancer in women; although associations did not exceed the Bonferroni threshold for significance. Intake of other polyphenol classes was not related to colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risks. Our study suggests a possible inverse association between phenolic acid intake and colon cancer risk in men and positive with rectal cancer risk in women.
KEYWORDS: Colorectal cancer, Diet, EPIC, Intake, Polyphenols, Prospective cohort
Malabsorption of Fermentable Oligo- Di- and Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs) in response to prolonged exercise may increase incidence of upper- and lower-gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), which are known to impair exercise performance. The case-study aimed to explore the impact of a low-FODMAP diet on exercise-associated GIS in a female ultra-endurance runner diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), competing in a six-day 186.7 km mountainous multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM). IBS symptom severity score at diagnosis was 410 and following a low-FODMAP diet reduced to 70. The diet was applied six-days before (i.e., lead-in diet), and maintained during the MSUM. Nutrition intake was analysed through dietary analysis software. A validated 100 mm visual analogue scale quantified GIS incidence and severity. GIS were modest during the MSUM, except severe nausea experienced throughout. Total daily energy intake did not meet estimated energy requirements. Total daily protein (1.4 ± 0.3 g·kgbody weight, carbohydrate, fat, and water intakes satisfied current consensus guidelines, except for carbohydrates. Carbohydrate intake during running failed to meet recommendations. The runner successfully implemented a low-FODMAP diet completing the MSUM with minimal GIS. However, suboptimal energy and carbohydrate intake occurred, potentially exacerbated by nausea associated with running at altitude.
KEYWORDS: Carbohydrates, gastrointestinal symptoms, malabsorption, running, visual analogue scale
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) releases both adiponectin and TNFα, and these two adipokines play important roles in heart diseases such as coronary arterial disease. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether fatty acid (FA) profiles in EAT are linked to the serum concentration of these adipokines. The relationships between serum adipokine levels and FA profiles in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery were analyzed. Patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery were included. EAT samples were taken. We measured clinical biochemical data and FA profiles in venous blood and EAT samples using gas chromatography. Serum adiponectin and TNFα concentrations were also measured. The adiponectin and TNFα levels were not correlated with any fatty acid concentration in serum lipids. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between the serum adiponectin level and epicardial level of nervonic acid. In multiple regression analysis, adiponectin showed a positive association with the epicardial C24:1ω9 concentration after controlling for age and BMI, or TG, non-HDL-C, and BNP. The serum TNFα concentration was negatively correlated with the epicardial C18:3ω3, C12:0 and C18:0 content. In multiple regression analysis, the serum TNFα concentration showed a positive association with the epicardial C18:3ω3 level. These results suggest that there is a close relationship between epicardial FA profiles and serum levels of adiponectin and TNFα. Dietary therapy to target FA profiles may be helpful to modulate inflammation.
KEYWORDS: Adiponectin, Adipose tissue, Cardiovascular surgery, Epicardial fat, Fatty acids, Linolenic acid, Nervonic acid, TNFα
The 2017 annual symposium organized by the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands focused on the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. Experts from academia and industry examined interactions of prebiotics, probiotics, or vitamins with the gut microbiome in health and disease, the development of the microbiome in early-life and the role of the microbiome on the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota changes dramatically during pregnancy and intrinsic factors (such as stress), in addition to extrinsic factors (such as diet, and drugs) influence the composition and activity of the gut microbiome throughout life. Microbial metabolites, e.g. short-chain fatty acids affect gut-brain signaling and the immune response. The gut microbiota has a regulatory role on anxiety, mood, cognition and pain which is exerted via the gut-brain axis. Ingestion of prebiotics or probiotics has been used to treat a range of conditions including constipation, allergic reactions and infections in infancy, and IBS. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) highly effective for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. The gut microbiome affects virtually all aspects of human health, but the degree of scientific evidence, the models and technologies and the understanding of mechanisms of action vary considerably from one benefit area to the other. For a clinical practice to be broadly accepted, the mode of action, the therapeutic window, and potential side effects need to thoroughly be investigated. This calls for further coordinated state-of-the art research to better understand and document the human gut microbiome's effects on human health.
KEYWORDS: Colonic fermentation, Gut, Gut-brain axis, Inflammatory bowel disease, Irritable bowel syndrome, Microbiota, Obesity, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Vitamins