Some useful links

There is plenty of basic information on dietary therapy throughout the Internet. If you are interested in the latest medical findings you should consult the global database PUBMED of the medical publications. Below are examples of IBS-related studies:

Dietary weight loss intervention improves subclinical atherosclerosis and oxidative stress markers in leukocytes of obese humans.

The relationship between caloric restriction-mediated weight loss and the generation of ROS and its effects on atherosclerotic markers in obesity is not fully understood. Therefore, we set out to investigate whether dietary weight loss intervention improves markers of oxidative stress in leukocytes and subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis. This was an interventional study of 59 obese subjects who underwent 6 months of dietary therapy, including a 6-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by an 18-week low-calorie diet (LCD). We determined clinical parameters, inflammatory markers-hsCRP, TNFα and NFκB -, oxidative stress parameters-total superoxide, glutathione, catalase activity and protein carbonyl groups-, soluble cellular adhesion molecules-sICAM, sP-selectin, sPSGL-1 -, myeloperoxidase (MPO), leukocyte-endothelium cell interactions-rolling flux, velocity and adhesion-and LDL subfractions, before and after the dietary intervention. After losing weight, an improvement was observed in the patients' anthropometric, blood pressure and metabolic parameters, and was associated with reduced inflammatory response (hsCRP, TNFα and NFκB). Oxidative stress parameters improved, since superoxide production and protein carbonyl content were reduced and antioxidant systems were enhanced. In addition, a significant reduction of subclinical markers of atherosclerosis-small and dense LDL particles, MPO, sP-selectin and leukocyte adhesion-and an increase in soluble PSGL-1 were reported. Our findings reveal that the improvement of subclinical atherosclerotic markers after dietary weight loss intervention is associated with a reduction of oxidative stress in leukocytes and inflammatory pathways, suggesting that these are the underlying mechanisms responsible for the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects after losing weight.

Dietary exclusion of fructose and lactose after positive breath tests improved rapid-transit constipation in children.

Exclusion of f ermentable o ligosaccharides, d isaccharides, m onosaccharides, and p olyols (FODMAPs) from the diet is effective in alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults. Rapid-transit constipation (RTC) is a recently discovered subset of chronic constipation and has been linked to food intolerance. The aim of this study was to audit the effect of specific FODMAP elimination diets in children with RTC. This was an audit of children presenting to a tertiary children's hospital surgeon with refractory chronic constipation who had rapid transit in the proximal colon on nuclear imaging; had hydrogen/methane breath tests for fructose, lactose, and/or sorbitol intolerance; and were advised to exclude positive sugar under clinical supervision. Patients filled in a questionnaire rating severity of constipation, abdominal pain, and pain on defecation with a visual analogue scale and stool consistency for 6 months before and after dietary exclusion. In responses from 29 children, 70% eliminated fructose, and 40% eliminated lactose. There was a significant reduction in the severity of constipation, abdominal pain, pain on defecation, and increase in stool wetness. Children with RTC showed significant improvements in constipation and pain after excluding the sugar indicated by positive breath tests, suggesting that specific sugar-exclusion diets may have a role in the management of RTC in children.

KEYWORDS: FODMAP, exclusion diet, food intolerance, rapid‐transit constipation

Implementation of ketogenic diet in children with drug-resistant epilepsy in a medium resources setting: Egyptian experience.

Even with the extensive use of ketogenic dietary therapies (KD), there still exist many areas of the world that do not provide these treatments. Implementing the ketogenic diet in different countries forms a real challenge in order to match the cultural and economic differences. To assess the feasibility of implementing a ketogenic diet plan in a limited resource setting with identification of the compliance, tolerability and side effects in the target population and to assess the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in children with intractable epilepsy. The medical records of 28 patients with intractable epilepsy, treated at The Children's Hospital - Cairo University from December 2012 to March 2014 with ketogenic dietary therapy were reviewed. The non-fasting protocol was followed without hospital admission. All children were started on a standardized classic ketogenic diet with a ratio ranging from 2.5-4:1 (grams of fat to combined carbohydrate and protein). Patients were followed at 1, 3 and 6 months after diet initiation. The median age was 60 months. After 1 month from diet initiation, 16 patients remained on the diet. One of them had more than 90% reduction in seizure frequency, an additional 6 patients had a 50-90% reduction in seizure frequency. In total, seven out of the 16 patients continuing the diet for 1 month had more than 50% improvement in seizure control from the base line. Despite having 50-90% seizure control, three children discontinued the diet after one month.Three months after diet initiation, 6 patients remained on diet, 4 of them had more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency.At 6 months, only 3 patients remained on diet, 2 of them had 50-90% reduction in seizure frequency, while one patient showed better than 90% decrease in seizure. The current study shows that the ketogenic diet could be implemented in medium resources countries and should be included in the management of children with intractable epilepsy.

KEYWORDS: Intractable epilepsy, Ketogenic diet, Pediatric epilepsy, Seizures

Efficiency of diet change in irritable bowel syndrome.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habit such as constipation, diarrhea, or both. Food is one of the most commonly reported triggers of IBS symptoms. we aim to assess the effect of diet change in improving IBS. This study was a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was developed for data collection in the present study. The survey was distributed online in Arabic language. A total of 1202 subjects participated in our study. Of these, 685 were female patients and 517 were male patients. The age of patients ranged from 15 to 55 years, more than one-third of them located in the age range between 15 and 25. The statistical analysis reported a significant correlations between having IBS for three successive days for 3 months regarding age and duration of IBS, having depression or anxiety before, and if the depression affects IBS symptoms or not. Having dietary regimen, advising to increase fibers, thinking about changing diet improves IBS symptoms and having treatment. According to our results, the prevalence of IBS was higher among females. Some diets, especially onions, garlic, and coffee, were reported to increase the IBS symptoms. Decreasing carbohydrate diets and increasing fiber diet would enhance the patient health where the symptoms where decreased.

KEYWORDS: Dietary regimen, gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome

[Recipe and application of new oxygen cocktail with high protein content in nutrition of cardiological patients].

The aims of this study was to develop recipe composition and to evaluate the use of new oxygen cocktail with high protein content in the dietary therapy of cardiological patients. Objects of the study were: the control sample - an oxygen-containing product prepared using dairy whey, fruit and berry juice, highly esterified pectin; experimental samples - oxygen-containing products, which differed from the control sample by additional introduction of whey protein hydrolysate. Experimental samples have been modified by adding to them whey protein hydrolysate in the amount of 1-3% from the total weight of composition. Technological scheme to produce protein-carbohydrate basis with high content of protein 3% has been developed, parameters of the production process were worked out. Analysis of product chemical composition has shown that 100 g contained 3.4-3.6 g of protein, 0.2-0.3 g of fat, 6.0-8.0 g of carbohydrates. Food value of the product made up 34-46 kcal. Assessment of effectiveness of new oxygen-containing product in the diet in conditions of cardiological hospital was carried out. 30 patients aged 60-75 years were included in local open prospective study, meeting the following criteria: patients with chronic heart failure I-IIА stage I-II functional classes, were hospitalized in the cardiology department, not having contraindications to enteral oxygen therapy and signed an informed consent form. In combination with standard therapy patients received new oxygenated product with high content of protein in the dose 250 ml daily for 10 days during the second breakfast. By the end of the observation period, according to results of the survey, the psycho-emotional state of patients improved. It has been found that the developed oxygen-containing product with high protein content in combination with a standard diet and drug therapy of the disease was well tolerated by patients.

KEYWORDS: cardiovascular diseases, dairy whey, enteral oxygen therapy, whey protein hydrolysate

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and lymphoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

There is growing evidence of the protective role of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on cancer. However, no prospective study has yet investigated its influence on lymphoma. We evaluated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The analysis included 476,160 participants, recruited from ten European countries between 1991 and 2001. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted relative Mediterranean diet (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma were identified. Overall, a 1-unit increase in the arMED score was associated with a 2% lower risk of lymphoma while a statistically non-significant inverse association between a high versus low arMED score and risk of lymphoma was observed. Analyses by lymphoma subtype did not reveal any statistically significant associations. Albeit with small numbers of cases, a suggestive inverse association was found for HL. However, the study may have lacked statistical power to detect small effect sizes for lymphoma subtype. Our findings suggest that an increasing arMED score was inversely related to the risk of overall lymphoma in EPIC, but not by subtypes. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Europe, Mediterranean diet, lymphoma, prospective studies, risk

Patient Perspective on Factors Contributing to Nonadherence to Dietary Therapy: A Qualitative Study in Multicultural Population of Kedah, Malaysia.

The purpose of this study is to explore diabetes patients' views on various factors contributing to nonadherence to dietary therapy. Using a qualitative approach, 17 in-depth interviews were conducted with type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Kedah state, Malaysia. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and translated before analysis. Thematic content analysis was used and three main themes emerged. The main factors that affect diabetes patients' dietary adherence were "individual preference," "family support," and "social and cultural activities." Difficulty to change the existing meals, poor family support, practice of eating out, and social and cultural gatherings were among the factors that influenced diabetes patients' adherence toward dietary therapy. Most challenges were related to the social role of food in the multicultural population. Therefore, in addition to the family and community involvement, dietary therapy should be individualized to improve patient adherence.

KEYWORDS: diabetes mellitus Type 2, diet therapy, nonadherence, qualitative research

Association of Physical Activity and Risk of Hepatobiliary Cancers: A Multinational Cohort Study.

Evidence on the association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers is inconclusive. We examined this association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC). We identified 275 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 93 intrahepatic bile duct cancers (IHBC), and 164 non-gallbladder extrahepatic bile duct cancers (NGBC) among 467,336 EPIC participants. We estimated cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for total physical activity and vigorous physical activity, performed mediation analysis, and secondary analyses to assess robustness to confounding (e.g., due to hepatitis virus infection). In the EPIC cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR of HCC was 0.55 (95% confidence intervals comparing active and inactive individuals. Regarding vigorous physical activity, for those reporting >2 hours/week compared to those with no vigorous activity, the HR for HCC was 0.50. Estimates were similar in sensitivity analyses for confounding. Total and vigorous physical activity were unrelated to IHBC and NGBC. In mediation analysis, waist circumference explained about 40% and body mass index 30% of the overall association of total physical activity and HCC. Findings suggest an inverse association between physical activity and risk of HCC, which is potentially mediated by obesity. In a pan-European study of 467,336 men and women, we found that physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of developing liver cancers over the next decade. This risk was independent of other liver cancer risk factors, and did not vary by age, gender, smoking status, body weight, and alcohol consumption.

KEYWORDS: Hepatobiliary cancer, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Liver cancer, Physical activity

Dietary Zinc and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Spain: MCC-Spain Study.

Zinc is a key trace element in normal prostate cell metabolism, and is decreased in neoplastic cells. However, the association between dietary zinc and prostate cancer (PC) in epidemiologic studies is a conflicting one. Our aim was to explore this association in an MCC-Spain case-control study, considering tumor aggressiveness and extension, as well as genetic susceptibility to PC. 733 incident cases and 1228 population-based controls were included for this study. Dietary zinc was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and genetic susceptibility was assessed with a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-based polygenic risk score (PRS). The association between zinc intake and PC was evaluated with mixed logistic and multinomial regression models. They showed an increased risk of PC in those with higher intake of zinc (Odds Ratio (OR) tertile 3vs1: 1.39; 95% Confidence interval. This association was mainly observed in low grade PC as well as in localized tumors and among those with higher PRS. In conclusion, a higher dietary zinc intake could increase the risk of low grade and localized tumors. Men with higher genetic susceptibility0020might also have a higher risk of PC associated with this nutrient intake.

KEYWORDS: diet, dietary zinc, genetic susceptibility, prostate cancer

Downregulation of PRMT1, a histone arginine methyltransferase, by sodium propionate induces cell apoptosis in colon cancer.

The microbiota and bacterial metabolites in the colon are regarded as alternative targets for colon cancer prevention and therapy. Among these metabolites, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) exhibit anticancer effects and suppress inflammation in the colon. However, the molecular mechanisms and target development of SCFAs require additional study. In the present study, using RNA-seq results from colon cancer samples derived from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) portal, overexpressed epigenetic modifiers were identified and RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analysis was performed to select target genes that responded to treatment with propionate in HCT116 cells. Downregulation of protein arginine methyltransferase 1, a histone arginine methyltransferase, was observed after sodium propionate (SP) treatment. Moreover, phospho-array analysis demonstrated that the mTOR pathway was involved in propionate and siPRMT1 treatment, and regulation of this pathway was associated with apoptosis in HCT116 cells. The present study, to the best of our knowledge, was the first to demonstrate that PRMT1 levels were reduced by propionate treatment in HCT116 cells and that downregulation of PRMT1 induced cell apoptosis. Thus, this novel mechanism of sodium propionate treatment for colon cancer therapy may indicate more effective approaches, such as dietary therapy, for CRC patients.

Treatment effects on compulsive exercise and physical activity in eating disorders.

Dysfunctional thoughts- and use of physical activity (PA) are core symptoms of the eating disorders (ED) bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). The compulsive desire for PA complicates a favourable treatment outcome; hence, regular, adapted PA led by personnel with competence in exercise science is rarely part of treatment of BN and BED. The present study compared cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with a new treatment combining physical exercise and dietary therapy (PED-t) with respect to the short- and long-term changes in the level of compulsive exercise and actual level of PA in women with BN or BED. We enrolled 187 women with BN or BED, aged 18-40 years, with BMI 17.5-35, in an outpatient randomised controlled therapy trial. Participants were randomised to PED-t or CBT, while waitlist participants served as a control group during the treatment period. The treatment covered 16 weeks, with 6- and 12 months follow-up, and outcomes included self-reported compulsive exercise (CE) and objectively measured PA, analysed by linear mixed regression models. Both CBT and PED-t reduced CE from baseline, but with no difference to control group. Compared to baseline, only PED-t significantly reduced the number of patients who scored above cut-off rating for CE, but with no between-group differences. The proportion of participants complying with the official recommendation for PA neither changed following treatment, nor emerged different between the treatment arms. Both therapies resulted in significant improvements in compulsive exercise, a change not found in the control group, however there were no between-group differences. The findings are tempered by the low statistical power due to a small control group size. The number of participants complying with the recommendation for PA were stable throughout the study, and no change in total PA was found. Presence and intensity of CE decline with treatment, but a need to increase PA towards healthy levels remains unsolved. Approved by the Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics; registered in Clinical Trials.

KEYWORDS: Binge-eating disorder, Bulimia nervosa, Cognitive behaviour therapy, Driven exercise, Excessive exercise, MVPA

Addressing the Nutritional Phenotype Through Personalized Nutrition for Chronic Disease Prevention and Management.

The primary focus of public health recommendations related to the prevention of food-related chronic disease has been on the adoption of healthy dietary patterns; however, implementation has been challenging. There has been increasing recognition that an individual's diet and environment may impact disease susceptibility by affecting the expression of genes involved in critical metabolic pathways. Precision nutrition (PN) has emerged to translate discoveries about diversity in nutrient metabolism between subgroups and the inter-individual variability in the responses to dietary interventions. The overarching goals of PN are to deliver individualized, actionable dietary therapy based on an individual's nutritional phenotype, created from the integration of genetics, metabolic profile, and environmental factors in order to prevent and treat chronic disease. This review addresses the developments of genome- and omic-driven PN and how they have been used to prevent and treat disease, as well as how they might be integrated into broader clinical practice.

KEYWORDS: Diet-gene interaction, Gut microbiota, Metabolomics, Precision nutrition, Prevention

Is diet management helpful in familial hypercholesterolemia?

Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic condition where low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor defects cause severe elevations of LDL cholesterol. As significant LDL-lowering effects are needed, medication is considered the cornerstone of therapy, and dietary therapy has received less emphasis. This review will re-visit older studies of diet intervention and new insights from genetic and mechanistic studies to determine the value of diet management for familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Saturated fat reduction improves cardiovascular outcomes, particularly in those with genetic predisposition to risk. Secular trends in saturated fat intake may have improved familial hypercholesterolemia outcomes. Dietary mechanisms of LDL cholesterol-lowering complement pharmacologic approaches. Diet treatment adds incremental health benefit to pharmacologic treatment in familial hypercholesterolemia.

Age-Dependent Protection of Insulin Secretion in Diet Induced Obese Mice.

Type 2 diabetes is an age-and-obesity associated disease driven by impairments in glucose homeostasis that ultimately result in defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. To deconvolve the effects of age and obesity in an experimental model of prediabetes, we fed young and aged mice either chow or a short-term high-fat/high-sucrose Western diet (WD) and examined how weight, glucose tolerance, and β-cell function were affected. Although WD induced a similar degree of weight gain in young and aged mice, a high degree of heterogeneity was found exclusively in aged mice. Weight gain in WD-fed aged mice was well-correlated with glucose intolerance, fasting insulin, and in vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, relationships that were not observed in young animals. Although β-cell mass expansion in the WD-fed aged mice was only three-quarters of that observed in young mice, the islets from aged mice were resistant to the sharp WD-induced decline in ex vivo insulin secretion observed in young mice. Our findings demonstrate that age is associated with the protection of islet function in diet-induced obese mice, and furthermore, that WD challenge exposes variability in the resilience of the insulin secretory pathway in aged mice.

A review of the gluten-free diet in non-celiac patients: beliefs, truths, advantages and disadvantages.

A gluten-free diet is the safest treatment for the treatment of patient with celiac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders. However, in the last years, gluten-free diet is one of the most popular diet followed by the general population and by patients affected from others clinical conditions, such as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), autism, neurological, psychiatric and rheumatologic diseases and for improving sports practice. This review highlights some questions about the appropriateness of follow this trend answering to some questions such as how safe are the current gluten-free products, what are the benefits and side effects of gluten-free diet and what are clinical conditions that might benefit from gluten avoidance.

Adherence with a low-FODMAP diet in irritable bowel syndrome: are eating disorders the missing link?

The low-FODMAP diet has emerged as an option for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This diet is very restrictive, and compliance is usually low. Preliminary findings suggest an association between eating disorders (EDs) and the risk of developing IBS. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between compliance with a low-FODMAP diet and the risk of ED behaviours among patients with IBS. A single-centre prospective study was carried out among 233 IBS patients at University College London Hospital, who commenced a low FODMAPs group programme for IBS (Rome III or IV). Self-reported diet adherence at the end of the 6-week programme was measured. At baseline, and at the 6-week follow-up visit, participants completed the validated IBS-Symptom Severity Score, the SCOFF ED screening questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Adherence with a low-FODMAP diet was found in 95 patients. Overall, 54 patients were classified to be at risk for ED behaviour. Adherence was 57% in the ED group versus 35% in the non-ED group; P<0.05. Adherence with a low-FODMAP diet was highest in the IBS with diarrhoea subtype and lowest in IBS with constipation. There was no significant correlation between IBS-Symptom Severity Score and either adherence or ED behaviour. In this IBS cohort, greater adherence to a low-FODMAP diet is associated with ED behaviour. The implications of our study are important in clinical practice for a clinician to have a high index of suspicion of EDs in IBS patients when a high level of low-FODMAP diet achieved.

Management Options for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms. These mechanisms include increased abnormal colonic motility or transit, intestinal or colorectal sensation, increased colonic bile acid concentration, and superficial colonic mucosal inflammation, as well as epithelial barrier dysfunction, neurohormonal up-regulation, and activation of secretory processes in the epithelial layer. Novel approaches to treatment include lifestyle modification, changes in diet, probiotics, and pharmacotherapy directed to the motility, sensation, and intraluminal milieu of patients with IBS. Despite recent advances, there is a need for development of new treatments to relieve pain in IBS without deleterious central or other adverse effects.

Maternal dietary consumption of legumes, vegetables and fruit during pregnancy, does it protect against small for gestational age?

Different diets during pregnancy might have an impact on the health, reflected in the birthweight of newborns. The consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy and the relationship with newborn health status have been studied by several authors. However, these studies have shown inconsistent results. We assessed whether certain foods were related to the risk of small for gestational age (SGA). A matched by age and hospital 1:1 case-control study of 518 pairs of pregnant Spanish women in five hospitals was conducted. The cases were women with an SGA newborn at delivery. The control group comprised women giving birth to babies adequate for gestational age (AGA). Mothers who gave birth to babies large for gestational age (LGA) were excluded. Data were gathered concerning demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, toxic habits and diet. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) comprising 137 items was completed by all participants. The intake of vegetables, legumes and fruits was categorized in quintiles. Crude values and and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. The variables for adjustment were as follows: preeclampsia, education, smoking, weight gain per week during pregnancy, fish intake and previous preterm/low birthweight newborns. Total pulse intake showed an inverse association with the risk of SGA. Women with an intake of fruits above 420 g/day, compared with women in Q1 showed a decreased risk of SGA. The total consumption of vegetables was not associated with the risk of SGA. The intake of selenium was assessed: a protective association was observed for Q3-5; a daily intake above 60 μg was associated with a lower risk of SGA. Fruits, pulses and selenium reduce the risk of SGA in Spanish women.

KEYWORDS: Fruits, Legumes, Maternal diet, Selenium, Small for gestational age, Vegetables

Coffee and tea drinking in relation to the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Coffee and tea constituents have shown several anti-carcinogenic activities in cellular and animal studies, including against thyroid cancer (TC). However, epidemiological evidence is still limited and inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this association in a large prospective study. The study was conducted in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, which included 476,108 adult men and women. Coffee and tea intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 first incident differentiated TC cases were identified. Coffee consumption was not associated either with total differentiated TC risk or with the risk of TC subtypes. Tea consumption was not associated with the risk of total differentiated TC and papillary tumor, whereas an inverse association was found with follicular tumor risk, but this association was based on a sub-analysis with a small number of cancer cases. In this large prospective study, coffee and tea consumptions were not associated with TC risk.

KEYWORDS: Coffee, Cohort, EPIC, Intake, Tea, Thyroid cancer

Microbiome and Gut Dysbiosis.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the residence of trillions of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. The collective genomes of whole microbial communities (microbiota) integrate the gut microbiome. Up to 100 genera and 1000 distinct bacterial species were identified in digestive tube niches. Gut microbiomes exert permanent pivotal functions by promoting food digestion, xenobiotic metabolism and regulation of innate and adaptive immunological processes. Proteins, peptides and metabolites released locally and at distant sites trigger many cell signalling and pathways. This intense crosstalk maintains the host-microbial homeostasis. Diet, age, diet, stress and diseases cause increases or decreases in relative abundance and diversity bacterial specie of GI and other body sites. Studies in animal models and humans have shown that a persistent imbalance of gut's microbial community, named dysbiosis, relates to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diabetes, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular and central nervous system disorders. Notably specific bacterial communities are promising clinical target to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. In this context, intestinal microbiota transplantation (IMT) is one optional treatment for IBD, in particular to patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile-induced pseudo-membrane colitis. Here we discuss on recent discoveries linking whole gut microbiome dysbiosis to metabolic and inflammatory diseases and potential prophylactic and therapeutic applications of faecal and phage therapy, probiotic and prebiotic diets.

KEYWORDS: Faecal therapy, Metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases, Microbiomes, Prebiotics, Probiotics