There is plenty of basic information on dietary therapy throughout the Internet. If you are interested in the latest medical findings you should consult the global database PUBMED of the medical publications. Below are examples of IBS-related studies:
For some people with medically refractory epilepsy adjunct treatment with neurostimulation and ketogenic diet can be an option. Vagal nerve stimulation, VNS, consists of chronic intermittent electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve. VNS is effective and well tolerated in adolescents and adults. There is insufficient evidence on the efficacy of deep brain stimulation, DBS, and brain-responsive neurostimulation, RNS. Ketogenic diet is an established treatment in epilepsy with an increased number of indications, especially in neurometabolic diseases, where dietary therapy can completely eliminate epilepsy and improve cognitive and motor development. Ketogenic diet is a calculated diet consisting of a high amount of fat, the daily need of protein and a minimum of carbohydrates. The fat is converted to ketone bodies and transported across the blood-brain barrier to be used as an alternative energy source in the brain. Strictly calculated menus, regular monitoring and support from a team of dietician, nurse and physician are required.
The relation between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and memory dysfunction is well established, yet imprecise. Here, we investigate whether mild TBI causes a specific deficit in spatial episodic memory. Fifty-eight mice were run in a spatial recognition task. To determine which phase of memory might be affected in our task, we assessed rodent performance at three different delay times. We found that sham and TBI mice performed equally well at 3 minutes, but TBI mice had significantly impaired spatial recognition memory after a delay time of one hour. Neither sham nor injured mice remembered the test object locations after a 24 hr delay. In addition, the TBI specific impairment was accompanied by a decrease in exploratory behavior during the first three minutes of the initial exposure to the test objects. These memory and exploratory behavioral deficits were linked as branched chain amino acid (BCAA) dietary therapy restored both memory performance and normal exploratory behavior. Our findings support the use of BCAA therapy as a potential treatment for mild TBI and suggest that poor memory performance after TBI is associated with a deficit in the exploratory behavior that is likely to underlie the encoding needed for memory formation.
KEYWORDS: LEARNING AND MEMORY, THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CNS INJURY, TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
Despite the rising of the Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs)' incidence in the last years, the etio-pathogenesis of FGIDs remains unclear. The diet seems to play an important role in these disorders. Indeed, at least two thirds of adult patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and of children with FGIDs perceive their GI symptoms to be food-related. In particular, in the last years, more interest has been focused in the low Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyol (FODMAPs) diet. To provide a systematic review on the efficacy of a low FODMAPs diet in reducing symptoms associated with functional abdominal pain disorders. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (via Pubmed), and EMBASE databases from inception to June 2017 were searched. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, reporting the efficacy of the FODMAPs diet intervention in FGIDs patients. Nineteen studies were eligible. A FODMAPs-restricted diet is beneficial in 12/13 intervention trials. The low FODMAPs diet improves overall GI symptoms, especially abdominal pain and bloating. In children, only one study reported positive results of a low FODMAPs diet. No effect was found for the lactose free diet whilst fructose-restricted diet was effective in 3/4 studies. The duration of the intervention was very different among the studies, ranging from 2 days to 16 months, and from 3 and 9 weeks for the RCTs. The majority of the trials presented differences in symptoms scoring scales, diet, food diaries, and food frequencies questionnaire. The FODMAPs-restricted diet may be an effective dietary intervention for reducing IBS symptoms in adults. In children, there are promising data, although only one randomized double-blind study exists and further data are needed to better clarify the role of FODMAPs and fructose-restricted diet in IBS. The current evidence does not support the use of a lactose-restricted diet in children with FGIDs.
KEYWORDS: Abdominal pain, Diet, FGIDs, FODMAPs, IBS, Paediatric
Irritable bowel syndrome is a common condition that negatively impacts quality of life and results in significant health care expenditures. The vast majority of IBS patients associate their symptoms with eating. Numerous randomized, controlled trials suggest that restriction of dietary FODMAPs improves overall symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating and quality of life in more than half of IBS sufferers. There is emerging data which suggests that other diets (gluten free, guided elimination diets) might also be of benefit to IBS patients. Areas covered: Comprehensive literature review on dietary therapies available for IBS to date and exploration into individualized dietary therapy development based on diagnostic testing. Expert commentary: FODMAP elimination identifies IBS patients who are sensitive to FODMAPs. Responders should undergo a structured reintroduction of foods containing FODMAPs to determine a patient's sensitivities. This information can then be used to create a personalized, less restrictive low FODMAP diet. Future research should focus on the identification of other effective diet therapies focusing on supplementation of functional foods in addition to elimination and the development of biomarker-based diet treatment plans which identify the right treatment for the right patient.
KEYWORDS: Dietary therapies, ESP, IBS, gluten free diet, low FODMAP
To evaluate the usefulness of a low FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyols) diet on patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), non-active inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD). Dietetic interventional prospective study. IBS, IBD, and CD subjects were evaluated to check if they fulfilled the Rome III criteria. Each subject was educated to follow a low FODMAP diet after being evaluated by filling out questionnaires that assessed the quality of life (QoL) and symptoms experienced, and was reevaluated after 1 and 3 months. One hundred twenty-seven subjects were enrolled: 56 with IBS, 30 with IBD, and 41 with CD. IBS-SSS showed that abdominal symptoms improved after 1 and 3 months of diet in all subjects, with significant difference among the 3 groups at T0, but no difference at T3. By analyzing the SF-36 questionnaire, we did not observe any difference between the 3 groups, in terms of response to diet (p = ns), we observed a clinical improvement from T0 to T3 for most of the questionnaire's domains. A low FODMAP diet could be a valid option to counter -abdominal symptoms in patients with IBS, non-active IBD, or CD on a GFD, and thus, improve their QoL and social -relations.
KEYWORDS: Celiac disease, Diet, Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols, Inflammatory bowel diseases, Irritable bowel syndrome
Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 5991 incident CRC cases, of which 3897 were in the colon and 2094 were in the rectum. Polyphenol intake was estimated using validated centre/country specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, a doubling in total dietary polyphenol intake was not associated with CRC risk in women or in men, respectively. Phenolic acid intake, highly correlated with coffee consumption, was inversely associated with colon cancer in men and positively associated with rectal cancer in women; although associations did not exceed the Bonferroni threshold for significance. Intake of other polyphenol classes was not related to colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risks. Our study suggests a possible inverse association between phenolic acid intake and colon cancer risk in men and positive with rectal cancer risk in women.
KEYWORDS: Colorectal cancer, Diet, EPIC, Intake, Polyphenols, Prospective cohort
Malabsorption of Fermentable Oligo- Di- and Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs) in response to prolonged exercise may increase incidence of upper- and lower-gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS), which are known to impair exercise performance. The case-study aimed to explore the impact of a low-FODMAP diet on exercise-associated GIS in a female ultra-endurance runner diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), competing in a six-day 186.7 km mountainous multi-stage ultra-marathon (MSUM). IBS symptom severity score at diagnosis was 410 and following a low-FODMAP diet reduced to 70. The diet was applied six-days before (i.e., lead-in diet), and maintained during the MSUM. Nutrition intake was analysed through dietary analysis software. A validated 100 mm visual analogue scale quantified GIS incidence and severity. GIS were modest during the MSUM, except severe nausea experienced throughout. Total daily energy intake did not meet estimated energy requirements. Total daily protein (1.4 ± 0.3 g·kgbody weight, carbohydrate, fat, and water intakes satisfied current consensus guidelines, except for carbohydrates. Carbohydrate intake during running failed to meet recommendations. The runner successfully implemented a low-FODMAP diet completing the MSUM with minimal GIS. However, suboptimal energy and carbohydrate intake occurred, potentially exacerbated by nausea associated with running at altitude.
KEYWORDS: Carbohydrates, gastrointestinal symptoms, malabsorption, running, visual analogue scale
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) releases both adiponectin and TNFα, and these two adipokines play important roles in heart diseases such as coronary arterial disease. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether fatty acid (FA) profiles in EAT are linked to the serum concentration of these adipokines. The relationships between serum adipokine levels and FA profiles in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery were analyzed. Patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery were included. EAT samples were taken. We measured clinical biochemical data and FA profiles in venous blood and EAT samples using gas chromatography. Serum adiponectin and TNFα concentrations were also measured. The adiponectin and TNFα levels were not correlated with any fatty acid concentration in serum lipids. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between the serum adiponectin level and epicardial level of nervonic acid. In multiple regression analysis, adiponectin showed a positive association with the epicardial C24:1ω9 concentration after controlling for age and BMI, or TG, non-HDL-C, and BNP. The serum TNFα concentration was negatively correlated with the epicardial C18:3ω3, C12:0 and C18:0 content. In multiple regression analysis, the serum TNFα concentration showed a positive association with the epicardial C18:3ω3 level. These results suggest that there is a close relationship between epicardial FA profiles and serum levels of adiponectin and TNFα. Dietary therapy to target FA profiles may be helpful to modulate inflammation.
KEYWORDS: Adiponectin, Adipose tissue, Cardiovascular surgery, Epicardial fat, Fatty acids, Linolenic acid, Nervonic acid, TNFα
The 2017 annual symposium organized by the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands focused on the role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease. Experts from academia and industry examined interactions of prebiotics, probiotics, or vitamins with the gut microbiome in health and disease, the development of the microbiome in early-life and the role of the microbiome on the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota changes dramatically during pregnancy and intrinsic factors (such as stress), in addition to extrinsic factors (such as diet, and drugs) influence the composition and activity of the gut microbiome throughout life. Microbial metabolites, e.g. short-chain fatty acids affect gut-brain signaling and the immune response. The gut microbiota has a regulatory role on anxiety, mood, cognition and pain which is exerted via the gut-brain axis. Ingestion of prebiotics or probiotics has been used to treat a range of conditions including constipation, allergic reactions and infections in infancy, and IBS. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) highly effective for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infections. The gut microbiome affects virtually all aspects of human health, but the degree of scientific evidence, the models and technologies and the understanding of mechanisms of action vary considerably from one benefit area to the other. For a clinical practice to be broadly accepted, the mode of action, the therapeutic window, and potential side effects need to thoroughly be investigated. This calls for further coordinated state-of-the art research to better understand and document the human gut microbiome's effects on human health.
KEYWORDS: Colonic fermentation, Gut, Gut-brain axis, Inflammatory bowel disease, Irritable bowel syndrome, Microbiota, Obesity, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Vitamins
Elimination diets are used to treat eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), with success (remission) defined at endoscopy and oesophageal biopsy as fewer than 15 eosinophils per high power field (HPF). Response is assessed after 6 weeks of treatment by convention, but we have observed that this period of time may be insufficient. To characterise a subset of patients with EoE who require prolonged of dietary therapy to achieve histologic remission. A retrospective search of electronic medical records of 2 cohorts with EoE attending the Department of Gastroenterology, University of Chapel Hill North Carolina, and Eastern Health, Melbourne Australia. Patients who underwent elimination diet, had esophageal biopsy after 6 or more weeks of dietary restriction that demonstrated ongoing esophageal inflammation, and who then continued dietary therapy followed by repeat endoscopy demonstrating remission were included. Seven patients met inclusion criteria, average esophageal eosinophil counts prior to diet was 38.5. Following the initial period of diet eosinophil count decreased. After extended dietary elimination, histological resolution was achieved in all cases. Endoscopic appearance and symptoms both improved following the initial period of dietary elimination, thereby preceding the histological resolution, and were sustained. A subset of patients has full histologic response to prolonged elimination diet, that lags initial symptomatic and endoscopic improvement.
KEYWORDS: Allergy, Diet, Endoscopy, Eosinophil, Esophagitis, Histology
Citrullinemia or ASS deficiency in its classical form presents in the neonatal period with poor feeding, hyperammonemia, encephalopathy, seizures, and if untreated can be fatal. Despite advances in medical therapy, neurocognitive outcomes remain suboptimal. LT has emerged as a potential management option. A retrospective single-center review identified 7 children with a median age of 1.1 years at referral. Five children presented clinically, and 2 were treated prospectively from birth due to positive family history. All patients received standard medical and dietary therapy prior to LT. The indications for LT were frequent metabolic decompensations in 4, elective in 2, and ALF in 1. The median age at LT was 2.4 years. Five patients received 6 left lateral segment grafts, one a live unrelated donor left lateral segment as an APOLT graft, and one a cadaveric whole liver graft as APOLT. One child required retransplantation due to hepatic artery thrombosis. Graft and patient survival were 86% and 100%, respectively. Median follow-up is 3.1 years, and the median age at follow-up is 5.5 years. There have been no metabolic decompensations in 6 children, while 1 patient (with APOLT) developed asymptomatic hyperammonemia with no clinical or histological signs of liver injury, requiring additional medical therapy. Our medium-term experience following LT in citrullinemia is favorable, demonstrating a positive transformation of the clinical phenotype.
KEYWORDS: argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency, auxiliary liver transplantation, hepatic transplantation, inherited metabolic disease, urea cycle defect
There is an increasing amount of evidence which links the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with food IgG hyperreactivity. Some authors have suggested that food IgG hyperreactivity could be also involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to compare levels of serum IgG against 39 selected food antigens between three groups of participants: patients with MDD (MDD group), patients with IBS (IBS group) and healthy controls (HC group). The study included 65 participants. Serum IgG levels were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Medical records, clinical data and laboratory results were collected for the analysis. IgG food hyperreactivity was detected in 28 participants, including 14 from the MDD group, ten from the IBS group and four from the HC group. We found differences between extreme IgG levels in MDD versus HC groups and in IBS versus HC groups. Patients with MDD had significantly higher serum levels of total IgG antibodies and IgG against celery, garlic and gluten compared with healthy controls. The MDD group also had higher serum IgG levels against gluten compared with the IBS group. Our results suggest dissimilarity in immune responses against food proteins between the examined groups, with the highest immunoreactivity in the MDD group. Further studies are needed to repeat and confirm these results in bigger cohorts and also examine clinical utility of IgG-based elimination diet in patients with MDD and IBS.
KEYWORDS: food allergy, food antigen, food hypersensitivity, gut-brain axis, immunoglobulin G antibody, intestinal permeability, irritable bowel syndrome, low-grade inflammation, major depressive disorder
There is an urgent need for safe treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that relieve treatment-refractory symptoms and their societal and economic burden. Cognitive behavior therapy, or 4 sessions of IBS education that provided support and information about IBS and the role of lifestyle factors such as stress, diet, exercise. The primary outcome was global improvement of IBS symptoms, based on the IBS-version of the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale. Ratings were performed by patients and board-certified gastroenterologists blinded to treatment allocation. Efficacy data were collected 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment completion. A higher proportion of patients receiving MC-CBT reported moderate to substantial improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms 2 weeks after treatment than those receiving EDU. Gastrointestinal symptom improvement, rated by gastroenterologists, 6 months after the end of treatment also differed significantly between the MC-CBT and EDU groups. Formal equivalence testing applied across multiple contrasts indicated that MC-CBT is at least as effective as S-CBT in improving IBS symptoms. Patients tended to be more satisfied with CBT vs EDU based on immediate post-treatment responses to the client satisfaction questionnaire. Symptom improvement was not significantly related to concomitant use of medications. In a randomized controlled trial, we found that a primarily home-based version of CBT produced significant and long-term gastrointestinal symptom improvement for patients with IBS compared to education. Clinicaltrials.gov no. clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00738920.
KEYWORDS: brain-gut interactions, disease management, functional gastrointestinal disorder, value-based healthcare
Esophageal microbiota and regulation of adaptive immunity are increasingly being investigated in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of innate immune activity. Our objective was to characterize the esophageal and duodenal innate immune response in EoE and its modulation by dietary therapy. Esophageal and duodenal biopsy samples were collected from 10 adults with untreated EoE, before and after effective treatment with a six-food elimination diet (SFED), and 10 controls with normal esophagus. In all cases, bacterial load, TLRs, mucins, transcription factors, interleukins, components of the NKG2D system, and innate immunity effectors were assessed by qPCR. Protein expression of TLRs were also determined by immunofluorescence. Bacterial load and TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 were overexpressed on biopsies with active EoE compared with controls. Muc1 and Muc5B genes were downregulated while Muc4 was overexpressed. Upregulation of MyD88 and NFκB was found together with IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 mediators and PER-1, iNOS, and GRZA effectors. NG-K2D components were also upregulated. In all cases, changes in active EoE were normalized following SFED and mucosal healing. Duodenal samples also showed increased expressions of TLR-1, TLR-2, and TLR-4, but not 16S or any other mediators nor effectors of inflammation. Esophageal TLR-dependent signaling pathways in EoE support the potential implication of microbiota and the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of this disease.
The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a probiotic mixture in patients with celiac disease (CD) with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms despite a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). About 30% of patients with CD adherent to a GFD suffer from IBS-type symptoms; a possible cause resides in the imbalances of the intestinal microbiota in CD. Probiotics may represent a potential treatment. CD patients with IBS-type symptoms entered a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. A 6-week treatment period was preceded by a 2-week run-in and followed by a 6-week follow-up phase. Clinical data were monitored throughout the study by validated questionnaires: IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS); Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS); Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS); and IBS Quality of Life Questionnaire (IBS-QOL). The fecal microbiota were assayed using plate counts and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. In total, 109 patients were randomized to probiotics or placebo. IBS-SSS and GSRS decreased significantly in probiotics, as compared with placebo, respectively. Treatment success was significantly higher in patients receiving probiotics, as compared with placebo. Presumptive lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus and Bifidobacterium, increased in patients receiving probiotic treatment. No adverse events were reported. A 6-week probiotic treatment is effective in improving the severity of IBS-type symptoms, in CD patients on strict GFD, and is associated with a modification of gut microbiota, characterized by an increase of bifidobacteria.
Leukocyte activation (LA) testing identifies food items that induce a patient specific cellular response in the immune system, and has recently been shown in a randomized double blinded prospective study to reduce symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We hypothesized that test reactivity to particular food items, and the systemic immune response initiated by these food items, is due to the release of cellular DNA from blood immune cells. We tested this by quantifying total DNA concentration in the cellular supernatant of immune cells exposed to positive and negative foods from 20 healthy volunteers. To establish if the DNA release by positive samples is a specific phenomenon, we quantified myeloperoxidase (MPO) in cellular supernatants. We further assessed if a particular immune cell population (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) was activated by the positive food items by flow cytometry analysis. To identify the signaling pathways that are required for DNA release we tested if specific inhibitors of key signaling pathways could block DNA release. Foods with a positive LA test result gave a higher supernatant DNA content when compared to foods with a negative result. This was specific as MPO levels were not increased by foods with a positive LA test. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors resulted in inhibition of positive food stimulated DNA release. Positive foods resulted in CD63 levels greater than negative foods in eosinophils in 76.5% of tests. LA test identifies food items that result in release of DNA and activation of peripheral blood innate immune cells in a PKC dependent manner, suggesting that this LA test identifies food items that result in release of inflammatory markers and activation of innate immune cells. This may be the basis for the improvement in symptoms in IBS patients who followed an LA test guided diet.
KEYWORDS: Food sensitivity, Immune system, Leukocyte activation test
Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 2 major types of gastric cancer. Several foods, nutrients, and nonnutrient food components seem to be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation. We assessed the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of gastric carcinoma, overall and for the 2 major subsites: cardia cancers and noncardia cancers. A total of 476,160 subjects from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were followed for 14 y, during which 913 incident cases of gastric carcinoma were identified, including 236 located in the cardia, 341 in the distal part of the stomach (noncardia), and 336 with overlapping or unknown tumor site. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated with the use of 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory scores. The association between the ISD and gastric cancer risk was estimated by HRs and 95% CIs calculated by multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for confounders. The inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The HR for each increase in 1 SD of the ISD were 1.25 for all gastric cancers, 1.30 for cardia cancers, and 1.07 for noncardia cancers. The corresponding values for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of the ISD were 1.66, 1.94, and 1.07, respectively. Our results suggest that low-grade chronic inflammation induced by the diet may be associated with gastric cancer risk. This pattern seems to be more consistent for gastric carcinomas located in the cardia than for those located in the distal stomach. This study is listed on the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN12136108.
Diet is considered the main source of Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exposure in the general population, although there are still several gaps of knowledge regarding the differential contribution of main food groups. The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns that contribute to human exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs). Study population was recruited during 2009-2010 in all the main geographical areas of Spain. For this work, exposure was estimated by chemical analyses of serum levels of 6 PCBs, 13 OCPs, and 6 (PFASs) in a subsample of 755. Dietary habits and covariates were gathered via self-administered questionnaires. Data analyses were performed by means of multivariable linear regression and weighted quantile sum regression. Both the consumption of animal-based and plant-based food were positively associated with the individual concentrations of p,p´-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and PCB-congeners -138, -153, and-180. The contribution of animal-based products was 2.1-4.0× stronger except in p,p´-DDE, to which both patterns had similar contributions. In PFASs only animal food was positively associated with the exposure levels. The main animal-based contributors to PCB exposure were fish and eggs, while OCP concentrations were mainly influenced by dairy products and fish. PFOA and PFHxS were mainly explained by cold-meat, fish, and eggs, while PFOS and PFDA were primarily influenced by fish consumption. In the case of plant-based items, fruits and vegetables accounted for the majority of the variability of PCB and OCP concentrations. Our results highlight the relevance of dietary POP exposure as well as the need for the consideration of nutritional interventions in public health programs aiming to reduce POP exposure in the general population.
KEYWORDS: Diet, Human biomonitoring, Organochlorine pesticides, Perfluoroalkyl substances, Polychlorinated biphenyls
The purpose of this review is to shed light into the diagnostic challenges regarding idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), giving more emphasis to the role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in IIH, while it also presents recent advances in the management of IIH. A literature search in PubMed was performed for studies about the diagnosis and management of IIH published before June 30, 2017. Then, a comprehensive review of the eligible studies and the relevant references was performed. Apart from the updated modified criteria, OCT has been found to be important for the diagnosis of IIH, along with assessment of clinical signs and symptoms, brain imaging, and lumbar puncture. On the other hand, there is no current consensus for the management of IIH, but various interventions have been used, such as dietary therapy (weight loss, bariatric surgery, lifestyle modification, low-salt diet), medications, and surgical treatment. IIH is a challenging and serious disorder, which may lead to permanent visual impairment if there is a delay in its diagnosis. Advances in retinal imaging have led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and prompt diagnosis even in subtle cases can be done using OCT. Surgical interventions should be minimized and only used in cases refractory to medical treatment and in those with rapid progression.
KEYWORDS: Diagnosis, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Pathogenesis, Treatment
This study evaluated tolerability and efficacy of the ketogenic diet in infants less than 12 months of age. Infants less than 12 months of age, commencing the ketogenic diet between September 2007 and July 2016 were identified. Records were reviewed for epilepsy details, diet initiation details, efficacy and tolerability. Twenty-seven infants commenced the ketogenic diet. Median age at seizure onset was 1.9 months and 92% had daily seizures. An epilepsy syndrome was noted in 19. Infants were on a median of two and had failed a median of one medications for lack of efficacy. All initiated a traditional ketogenic diet at full calories without fasting, and all but one started the diet in hospital. Significant hypoglycemia during initiation was seen in two - both had emesis +/- decreased oral intake. Eighty-eight percent developed urinary ketosis by 48 hours and all were successfully discharged on the diet. Of those continuing dietary therapy, responder rates at one, six and 12 months were 68%, 82% and 91%, with 20%, 29% and 27% achieving seizure freedom. By 12 months, two stopped the diet for serious adverse effects, five discontinued for lack of efficacy, six were lost to follow-up and two died of unrelated causes. The ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for infants with intractable epilepsy. In-hospital initiation is strongly recommended due to risk of hypoglycemia with emesis or reduced intake.
KEYWORDS: Epilepsy, Infant, Ketogenic, Ketogenic diet