Some useful links

There is plenty of basic information on dietary therapy throughout the Internet. If you are interested in the latest medical findings you should consult the global database PUBMED of the medical publications. Below are examples of IBS-related studies:

Consumption of Meat, Fish, Dairy Products, Eggs and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease: A Prospective Study of 7198 Incident Cases Among 409,885 Participants in the Pan-European EPIC Cohort.

There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the etiology of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort. A prospective study of 409,885 men and women in nine European countries. Diet was assessed using validated questionnaires, calibrated using 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During 12.6 years mean follow up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died from IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined using Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 for a 100 g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after excluding the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt, cheese and eggs; the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and non-significant after excluding the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish or milk. In analyses modelling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese or eggs was associated with approximately 20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol. Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat, and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non-HDL cholesterol, and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects.

KEYWORDS: dairy products, eggs, fish, meat

Patient expectations of a new treatment for eating disorders combining guided physical exercise and dietary therapy: an interview study of women participating in a randomised controlled trial at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.

To study the expectations women with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) had to a new treatment programme based on guided physical exercise and dietary therapy. Semistructured interviews were conducted with six women with BN and four women with BED following a group-based therapy programme. Transcribed interviews were analysed using a text-condensing analytic approach. The analysis resulted in three main categories, that is, expectations about increased knowledge, symptom changes and therapeutic expertise. The women expected that learning more about nutrition and physical exercise would give them more energy, less fear of food, physical and mental symptoms and a negative body focus. They also expected therapists to be professional and competent, and able to take care of them. The overall high and positive treatment expectation can, to some extent, reflect enthusiasm about a new and innovative approach to treatment. However, the results also reflect generic and highly adequate outcome expectations, which for the purpose of effectiveness should be incorporated into all treatment efforts at least for patients with eating disorders. NCT02079935; Results.

KEYWORDS: clinical trials, eating disorders, mental health, qualitative research

Adropin reduces blood glucose levels in mice by limiting hepatic glucose production.

Adropin is a liver- and brain-secreted peptide hormone with striking effects on fuel metabolism regulation in a number of tissues. Previous studies demonstrated that adropin secretion is decreased in obese mice subjected to a long-term high-fat diet (HFD), and that whole-body loss of adropin expression resulted in systemic insulin resistance. Treatment of obese mice with adropin improves glucose tolerance, which has been linked to increased glucose oxidation and inhibition of fatty acid utilization in isolated skeletal muscle homogenates. In this study, we used in vivo physiological measurements to determine how treatment of obese mice with adropin affects whole-body glucose metabolism. Treatment with adropin reduced fasting blood glucose and, as shown previously, increased glucose tolerance in HFD mice during standard glucose tolerance tests. Under hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions, adropin treatment led to a nonsignificant increase in whole-body insulin sensitivity, and a significant reduction in whole-body glucose uptake. Finally, we show that adropin treatment suppressed hepatic glucose production and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity. This correlated with reduced expression of fatty acid import proteins and gluconeogenic regulatory enzymes in the liver, suggesting that adropin treatment may impact the pathways that drive vital aspects of hepatic glucose metabolism.

KEYWORDS: Adropin, hepatic glucose production, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, insulin sensitivity, liver

Dynamic repression by BCL6 controls the genome-wide liver response to fasting and steatosis.

Transcription is tightly regulated to maintain energy homeostasis during periods of feeding or fasting, but the molecular factors that control these alternating gene programs are incompletely understood. Here, we find that the B cell lymphoma 6 repressor is enriched in the fed state and converges genome-wide with PPARα to potently suppress the induction of fasting transcription. Deletion of hepatocyte Bcl6 enhances lipid catabolism and ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced steatosis. In Ppara -null mice, hepatocyte Bcl6 ablation restores enhancer activity at PPARα-dependent genes and overcomes defective fasting-induced fatty acid oxidation and lipid accumulation. Together, these findings identify BCL6 as a negative regulator of oxidative metabolism and reveal that alternating recruitment of repressive and activating transcription factors to shared cis-regulatory regions dictates hepatic lipid handling.

KEYWORDS: B-cell lymphoma 6, BCL-6, BCL6, ChIP-seq, HDAC, HDAC3, NAFLD, NCOR, PPAR, PPAR alpha, PPAR delta, PPARA, PPARD, SMRT, chromosomes, enhancer, fasting, fatty acid oxidation, gene expression, high fat diet, human biology, ketosis, liver, medicine, mouse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, nuclear receptor, repression, repressor, steatosis, transcription

Bisphenol A and adiposity measures in peripubertal boys from the INMA-Granada cohort.

Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of our times. Although an important body of experimental evidence highlights the obesogenic potential of endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A (BPA), the epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive and limited. To assess associations between urinary BPA concentrations and several adiposity measures in peripubertal boys from the Environment and Childhood (INMA) cohort in Granada, Spain. BPA concentrations were determined in spot urine samples from 298 boys aged 9-11, and their weight, height, waist circumference, and percentage body fat mass were measured. Overweight/obesity was defined as BMI z-score ≥85th percentile and abdominal obesity as waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥0.5. Associations were assessed using multivariable linear and logistic regression models. In adjusted models, each natural log-unit increase in urinary BPA concentrations was associated with higher BMI z-score and increased odds of overweight/obesity. Children with higher BPA concentrations had higher WHtR values, and BPA was associated with a greater risk of abdominal obesity. No associations were found with % body fat mass. BPA may exert an obesogenic effect in peripubertal boys, potentially increasing the risk of overweight/obesity, especially abdominal obesity. However, these results should be interpreted with caution given the modest sample size and the possibilities of reverse causality and residual confounding by diet and lifestyle patterns.

KEYWORDS: Adipose, BMI z-score, Bisphenol A, Body fat mass, Children, Obesity, Puberty, Waist circumference, Waist-to-height ratio

Percent Fat Mass Increases with Recovery, But Does Not Vary According to Dietary Therapy in Young Malian Children Treated for Moderate Acute Malnutrition.

Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) affects 34.1 million children globally. Treatment effectiveness is generally determined by the amount and rate of weight gain. Body composition (BC) assessment provides more detailed information on nutritional stores and the type of tissue accrual than traditional weight measurements alone. The aim of this study was to compare the change in percentage fat mass lipid-based, ready-to-use supplementary food special corn-soy blend "plus plus" locally processed, fortified flour locally milled flours plus oil, sugar, and micronutrient powder (LMF). Multivariate linear regression modeling was used to evaluate change in BC parameters by treatment group and recovery status. Mean ± SD %FM at baseline was 28.6% ± 5.32%. Change in %FM did not vary between groups. Children who received RUSF vs. MI gained more weight, FM, and weight-for-length z score. Children who recovered from MAM exhibited greater increases in all BC parameters, including %FM, than children who did not recover. In this study population, children had higher than expected %FM at baseline. There were no differences in %FM change between groups. International BC reference data are needed to assess the utility of BC assessment in community-based management of acute malnutrition programs. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015950.

KEYWORDS: Mali, acute malnutrition, anthropometry, body composition, child growth, supplementary feeding

Functional Nutrition Treatment of Vulvodynia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and Depression: A Case Report.

A 34-y-old pregnant woman previously diagnosed with vulvodynia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and depression used an elimination diet and nutritional supplementation-from 15 wk pregnant to 22 wk postpartum-to resolve her vulvodynia and IBS, and to reduce her use of antidepressant medication. This case demonstrates the potential usefulness of incorporating a customized functional nutritional approach to evaluate potential proinflammatory foods and nutritional insufficiencies in perinatal patients and postnatal patients.

Milking the System: Dietary Therapy of Post-nephrectomy Chylous Ascites.

KEYWORDS: Ascites, Chyloperitoneum, Chylous ascites, Cisterna chyli, Medium-chain triglycerides, Octreotide, Retroperitoneal, Somatostatin, Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

Predicting circulating CA125 levels among healthy premenopausal women.

CA125 is the most promising ovarian cancer screening biomarker to date. Multiple studies reported CA125 levels vary by personal characteristics, which could inform personalized CA125 thresholds. However, this has not been well described in premenopausal women. We evaluated predictors of CA125 levels among 815 premenopausal women from the New England Case Control Study (NEC). We developed linear and dichotomous CA125 prediction models and externally validated an abridged model restricting to available predictors among 473 premenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC). The final linear CA125 prediction model included age, race, tubal ligation, endometriosis, menstrual phase at blood draw, and fibroids, which explained 7% of the total variance of CA125. The correlation between observed and predicted CA125 levels based on the abridged model (including age, race, and menstrual phase at blood draw) had similar correlation coefficients in NEC and in EPIC. The dichotomous CA125 prediction model included age, tubal ligation, endometriosis, prior personal cancer diagnosis, family history of ovarian cancer, number of miscarriages, menstrual phase at blood draw and smoking status with AUC of 0.83. The abridged dichotomous model (including age, number of miscarriages, menstrual phase at blood draw, and smoking status) showed similar AUCs in NEC and in EPIC. We identified a combination of factors associated with CA125 levels in premenopausal women. Our model could be valuable in identifying healthy women likely to have elevated CA125 and consequently improve its specificity for ovarian cancer screening.

Effects of Low-FODMAPS Diet on Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms and Gut Microbiome.

Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) suffer from abdominal pain, bloating, and abnormal defecation. Reducing the dietary intake of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) has been shown to be beneficial in reducing IBS symptoms. However, diet modification plays an important role in the composition of colonic microbiota. Currently, the effects of a FODMAP diet on the composition of the gut microbiome are not known. We conducted a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of low-FODMAPs diet to reduce symptoms of patients with IBS and the association between a low-FOMAPs diet and the composition of gut microbiome. Four electronic databases were searched using key words "IBS" or "irritable bowel syndrome," and "FODMAP" or "FODMAPs" or "fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols," and "microbiome." Two reviewers (H.S. and Y.T.L.) selected and reviewed articles according to our inclusion criteria. A total of 87 articles were reviewed and 7 met inclusion criteria. Based on the systematic review, low FODMAPs appear to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms for a least a subset of patients with IBS. However, due to the heterogeneity of reviewed studies, the influence on patients' gut microbiome composition and/or microbiota metabolites requires additional studies.

Elimination of Fermentable Carbohydrates to Reduce Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Pediatric Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Narrative Review.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is classified as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel function. Although the pathophysiology of IBS is incompletely understood, fermentable carbohydrates are implicated as a potential cause of symptoms. An elimination diet, such as a low-FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet, represents a potential intervention for reducing GI symptoms in patients with IBS. The role of fermentable carbohydrates in symptom onset is well studied in adult patients with IBS; however, less research exists in the pediatric population. This review sought to explore evidence for the role of dietary fermentable carbohydrate elimination to reduce GI symptoms (abdominal pain, stool changes, abdominal bloating) in children and adolescents diagnosed with IBS based on Rome III or IV criteria. Five studies of neutral to positive quality rating were identified and analyzed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Process. These studies demonstrate that dietary elimination of fermentable carbohydrates, such as through a low-FODMAP diet, reduces the severity of 1 or more GI symptoms in about one-quarter to one-half of pediatric patients with IBS. Patients without improvement are considered "nonresponders" and may require an alternative intervention. More research is needed to establish the best way to identify patients who would respond to elimination diets vs other IBS treatment strategies.

KEYWORDS: FODMAP, disaccharides, gastrointesinal disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, pediatrics, polyols

Probiotics, prebiotics, and low FODMAP diet for irritable bowel syndrome - What is the current evidence?

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. While the pathogenesis is not clearly understood, current research points to the role of the gut microbiome and alterations in the diversity of the microbiota. Probiotics, prebiotics, and low FODMAP diet are therapeutic means associated with modification of the gut microbiome for the alleviation of IBS symptoms. This narrative review assesses the current evidence on the efficacy of these treatment options based on findings from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses published from October 2013 to October 2018. There is a general agreement in the 11 included systematic reviews and meta-analyses that probiotic therapy is safe and can be effective in improving overall IBS symptom scores and abdominal pain in the general IBS population. Nonetheless, conflicting findings remain and no recommendation on the specific species/strains or combination can be made. Short-term restriction of FODMAP in the diet can improve IBS symptoms as per the findings of 7 systematic reviews and meta-analyses, even though the quality of the evidence remains questionable. Inappropriate use of the low FODMAP diet can potentially impact health negatively. As such, a low FODMAP diet is only recommended as a second line treatment guided by qualified clinicians with specialized training. Despite preclinical studies of some prebiotics demonstrated the potential use in improving gut microbiome and intestinal inflammatory response, the beneficial effect of prebiotics for IBS remains theoretical. Two systematic reviews found no evidence to support the clinical use of prebiotics for IBS.

KEYWORDS: FODMAP, IBS, Irritable bowel syndrome, Meta-analysis, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Synbiotics, Systematic review

Illuminating Elimination Diets: Controversies Regarding Dietary Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated disease triggered by food antigens for which dietary elimination treatment can induce and sustain histologic remission. Our review aims to describe the state of the art regarding dietary treatment of EoE, highlighting a number of areas of controversy related to dietary therapy in EoE, including novel modalities for determining food triggers, making the empiric dietary elimination process more efficient, issues of cross-contamination and "dosing" of how much food to avoid or add back, costs and effects on quality of life, long-term efficacy, and the risk of developing immediate IgE-type reactions after initial dietary elimination. Elemental formulas, empiric elimination diets, and targeted allergy test-directed elimination diets are well-described treatments for EoE. Although elemental diets are most efficacious, their clinical use is limited by cost and the palatability of an exclusively liquid diet. While empiric elimination is less effective than elemental formula-based diets, they are more easily implemented and often sustainable. Since the comparative effectiveness of elimination diets with proton-pump inhibitors and swallowed topical steroids remains unknown, there are multiple areas to address with future research.

KEYWORDS: Allergy, Diet, Eosinophilic esophagitis, Food elimination, Treatment

BRD7 deficiency leads to the development of obesity and hyperglycemia.

Obesity is a debilitating disease that has become a global epidemic. Although progress is being made, the underlying molecular mechanism by which obesity develops still remains elusive. Recently, we reported that the expression levels of bromodomain-containing protein 7 are significantly reduced in the liver of obese mice. However, it is not clear whether decreased levels of hepatic BRD7 are directly associated with the development of obesity and disturbance in glucose homeostasis. Here, using heterozygous BRD7 knockout and liver-specific BRD7 knockout mouse models, we report that reduced BRD7 levels lead to increased weight gain with little effect on glucose metabolism. On the other hand, upregulating BRD7 in the liver starting at an early age protects mice from gaining excessive weight and developing glucose intolerance and insulin resistance when challenged with a high-fat diet.

Pediatric Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Outcome of Dietary Therapy.

The coexistence of celiac disease (CeD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in pediatric patients has been increasingly recognized. In the current study, we have aimed to assess the outcomes of therapeutic dietary interventions in a cohort of pediatric patients with CeD and EoE. Pediatric patient records obtained from the University of Chicago Celiac Center Database from August 2008 to July 2013 were reviewed. Information was collected on patients with concomitant CeD and EoE regarding age, gender, dates of diagnoses, presenting symptoms, length of symptoms prior to diagnosis, familial and personal atopic history, dietary therapy, and esophageal histologic response to dietary therapy. A total of 350 records of CeD patients were reviewed. 22 had a confirmed diagnosis of CeD and EoE, 17 had repeat biopsies. 4/17 had resolution of esophageal eosinophilia on an exclusive gluten-free diet, 10/17 required additional eliminations to show histologic resolution, 1/17 hadn't reached histological remission, and 2/17 were lost to follow up. Success rates of single food reintroductions were: soy 5/5, eggs 3/5, dairy 3/7, nuts 2/4, and fish 2/4. To our knowledge, this is the largest pediatric study to assess the histologic outcome of EoE-associated esophageal eosinophilia in response to dietary management of pediatric patients with concomitant CeD and EoE. We demonstrate that soy is well tolerated in this cohort, and suggest that reintroducing this food first, or trialing a soy-inclusive elimination diet is a viable strategy.

Letters: low FODMAP diet-directions for future research and the low FODMAP diet is not the only diet for IBS-authors' reply.

Letter: the low FODMAP diet is not the only diet for IBS.

Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders.

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are a group of disorders characterized by pathologic eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or colon leading to organ dysfunction and clinical symptoms. These disorders include eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), eosinophilic gastritis (EG), eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), eosinophilic enteritis (EE), and eosinophilic colitis (EC). Symptoms are dependent not only on the location (organ) as well as extent (layer invasion of the bowel wall). Common symptoms of EoE include dysphagia and food impaction in adults and heartburn, abdominal pain, and vomiting in children. Common symptoms of the other EGIDs include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, early satiety, diarrhea, and weight loss. These disorders are considered immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disorders with strong links to food allergen triggers. Treatment strategies focus on either medical or dietary therapy. These options include not only controlling symptoms and bowel inflammation but also on identifying potential food triggers. This chapter will focus on the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment of these increasingly recognized disorders.

KEYWORDS: Dysphagia, Eosinophilic esophagitis, Eosinophilic gastritis, Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, Food allergy, Food impaction

Inflammatory potential of diet and risk of lymphoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in lymphomagenesis and several dietary factors seem to be involved its regulation. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The analysis included 476,160 subjects with an average follow-up of 13.9 years, during which 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 2606 non-Hodgkin lymphoma were identified. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated using 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory weights. The association between the ISD and lymphoma risk was estimated by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated by multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The ISD was not associated with overall lymphoma risk. Among lymphoma subtypes, a positive association between the ISD and mature B-cell NHL was observed. No statistically significant association was found among other subtypes. However, albeit with smaller number of cases, a suggestive association was observed for HL. Our findings suggested that a high ISD score, reflecting a pro-inflammatory diet, was modestly positively associated with the risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Further large prospective studies on low-grade inflammation induced by diet are warranted to confirm these findings.

KEYWORDS: Chronic inflammation, Inflammatory score of the diet, Lymphoma, Nutrition, Prospective studies

Food-related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

Food-related quality of life (FRQoL) evaluates the impact of diet, eating behaviors, and food-related anxiety on a person's quality of life. This is the first study to evaluate FRQoL in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), two illnesses where food and diet are of importance. One hundred seventy-five participants participated in the study by completing measures evaluating FRQoL, psychological distress, and health-related quality of life. Primary analyses evaluated differences in FRQoL between IBD and IBS patients. Secondary analyses compared differences based on remission status, dietary use, and dietary consultation, as well as evaluated potential predictors of FRQoL. IBD patients in remission report the highest FRQoL. Using more dietary treatments is associated with decreased FRQoL for IBS and IBD patients. IBS patients are more likely to use dietary treatments than IBD, with self-directed diets being the most commonly used approach. Symptom severity is the strongest predictor of FRQoL in both groups. FRQoL is a unique construct for IBD and IBS patients that can be influenced by several clinical and dietary factors, including number of diets and type of diet used, depending on the diagnosis. Thus, FRQoL should be considered when working with both IBD and IBS patients.

KEYWORDS: Diet, Inflammatory bowel disease, Irritable bowel syndrome, Outcomes research, Quality of life